Output calculation

Heat losses can be divided into two parts: Transmission losses via parts of the building (roof, walls, etc.) and ventilation losses.

Transmission losses 

The size of transmission losses varies according to the areas of the building parts and insulation. The losses are proportional to the temperature differences between indoor and outdoor air

Ventilation losses
The ventilation in a building is either mechanical or of the natural type. Mechanical ventilation most often consists of a supply and exhaust air unit that makes heat recovery possible. Natural and involuntary ventilation consists of thermal currents causing warm air to rise and leak through openings and unsealed areas.

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Parameters

Floor surface m2 Ceiling, K-value W/m2C
Ceiling surface m2 Floor, K-value W/m2C
Building height m Dimensioned indoor temperature XX
Window surface m2 Dimensioned outdoor temperature C
Mounting height window m Annual averge temperature C
Surface entrance door m2 Internal heat W/m2C
Surface external wall m2 Ventilation/air infiltration Changes/h
Window, K-value W/m2C Temperature gradient C/m
Doors, K-value W/m2C External walls, K-value W/m2C
Night temperature C Air changes, night Changes/h
Time in operation with daytemp. hr/24 Time in operation with nighttemp. hr/24
Days per week in operation Days/week Energy price per kWh
Floor surface m2
Ceiling surface m2
Building height m
Window surface m2
Mounting height window m
Surface entrance door m2
Surface external wall m2
Window, K-value W/m2C
Doors, K-value W/m2C
External walls, K-value W/m2C
Ceiling, K-value W/m2C
Floor, K-value W/m2C
Dimensioned indoor temperature XX
Dimensioned outdoor temperature C
Annual averge temperature C
Internal heat W/m2C
Ventilation/air infiltration Changes/h
Temperature gradient C/m
 
Night temperature C
Air changes, night Changes/h
Time in operation with daytemp. hr/24
Time in operation with nighttemp. hr/24
Days per week in operation Days/week
Energy price per KWh

The output calculation is based on the project data and information that has been submitted by the customer. If necessary information is not available, the calculation may be completed by inserting assumed values.

Frico AB is not responsible for miscalculation as a result of inaccurate data from the customer, lack of information or the use of assumed data.


U-value window

Material U-value [W/m2oC]
New building  
1+1 pane window (1 outer pane and 1 insulated pane) 2,5
2 pane window (2 insulated panes) 2,7
2+1 pane window (1 outer pane and 2 insulated panes) 1,0
3 pane window (3 insulated panes) 1,2
Energy class A 0,9
Energy class B 1,0
Energy class C 1,1
Energy class D 1,2
Energy class E 1,3
Energy class F 1,4
Energy class G 1,5
   
Older building  
1 pane window 5,0
2 pane window 3,0
3 pane window 2,0
3 pane window insulated pane 1,8
   

 
 

U-value door

Material U-value [W/m2oC]
   
Sliding entry with full panels 0,8
Sliding entry with windows and door 1,3
Folding door with windows 2,2
Folding door fully glazed 3,4
Single front door without glass 1,0
Single front door with glass 3,4
Double front door without glass 0,7
Double front door withglass 1,7

U-value Walls

Material U-value [W/m2oC]
New building  
Wooden fascia with 15 cm insulation and plaster 0,27
Wooden fascia with 20 cm insulation and plaster 0,25
Wooden fascia with 25 cm insulation and plaster 0,22
Brick fascia with 15 cm insulation and plaster 0,27
Brick fascia with 20 cm insulation and plaster 0,24
Light concrete with 15 cm insulation 0,25
Light concrete with 20 cm insulation 0,20
Sheet metal fascia with 5 cm insulation 0,80
Sheet metal fascia with 10 cm insulation 0,40
Sheet metal fascia with 15 cm insulation 0,30
New construction for low energy house 0,18
   
Warehouse  
One layer PVC (900 g) 5,0
Insulated hall (Thermohall) 0,6
   
Older building  
Single brick 12 cm 1,8
1 1/2 brick 18 cm 1,1
Light concrete block 20 cm 0,8
Light concrete block 30 cm 0,6
Concrete 15 cm 2,8
Concrete with 5 cm insulation 0,8
Concrete with 10 cm insulation 0,4
Frame wall with 5 cm insulation 0,8
Frame wall with 10 cm insulation 0,4
Frame wall with 15 cm insulation 0,3
New building 0,3
   


U-value roof

Material U-value [W/m2oC]
New building  
Sheet metal pitched roof, with 20 cm insulation 0,24
Brick pitched roof, with 20 cm insulation 0,23
   
Older building  
Concrete beam frame 15 cm 2,8
Concrete beam frame with 5 cm insulation 0,8
Concrete beam with 10 cm insulation 0,4
Light concrete 20 cm 0,8
Light concrete 30 cm 0,6
Sheet metal roof, uninsulated 4,0
Sheet metal roof with 5 cm insulation 0,8
Sheet metal roof with 10 cm insulation 0,6
Sheet metal roof with 25 cm insulation

U-value floor

Material U-value [W/m2oC]
   
New building  
Newl building, floor with 10 cm insulation 0,20
Newl building, floor with 15 cm insulation 0,16
New building, floor with 20 cm insulation 0,13
   
Older building  
Older building < 300 m² 0,40
Older building > 300 m² 0,30
   

Calculated output

The calculated output requirement for a building is the heat output necessary to maintain the desired indoor temperature when the outdoor air temperature is at its coldest.

Country/City

Dim. outside temp.

[oC]

 
Australia

 

 
Alice Springs -7  
Brisbane 2  
Canberra -10  
Darwin 13  
Melbourne -3  
Perth 1  
Sydney 2  
Austria    
Innsbruck -27  
Klagenfurt -27  
Vienna -12  
Belgium    
Brussels -17  
Ostend -13  
Virton -18  
Bulgaria    
Sofia -25  
Varna -16  
Croatia    
Dubrovnik -7  
Zagreb -9  
Czech Republic    
Brno -25  
Prague -28  
Denmark    
Copenhagen -24  
Hoyvik -10  
Estonia    
Tallinn -30  
Finland    
Helsinki -33  
Inari -42  
France    
Bordeaux -15  
Lyon -21  
Marseilles -17  
Paris -15  
Germany    
Berlin -22  
Frankfurt -24  
Hamburg -29  
Hannover -29  
München -30  
Greece    
Athens -6  
Thessaloniki -10  
Hungary    
Budapest -23  
Debrecen -28  
Iceland    
Reykjavik -15  
Ireland    
Cork -9  
Dublin -12  
Italy    
Cagliari -2  
Milan -11  
Naples -4  
Palermo 0  
Rome -6  
Venice -9  
Latvia    
Riga -28  
Lithuania    
Vilnius -29  
Netherlands    
Amsterdam -25  
Vissingen -20  
Norway    
Bergen -14  
Narvik -20  
Oslo -26  
Spitzbergen -33  
Poland    
Gdansk -24  
Krakow -27  
Poznan -28  
Warszaw -29  
Portugal    
Faro -1  
Lissabon -1  
Porto -4  
Romania    
Arad -30  
Bucharest -32  
Constanta -23  
Russia    
Archangel -41  
Astrakhan -29  
Irkutsk -50  
Moscow -32  
Perm -44  
St Petersburg -33  
Slovak Republic    
Bratislava -23  
Kosice -27  
Slovenia    
Ljubljana -28  
Spain    
Almeria 0  
Barcelona -7  
Madrid -10  
Santander -4  
Seville -3  
Switzerland    
Bern -20  
Geneva -18  
Zürich -23  
Turkey    
Ankara -25  
Istanbul -9  
Izmir -11  
Kars -37  
Samsun -7  
Ukraine    
Simferopol -21  
Kiev -25  
United Kingdom    
Belfast -13  
Birmingham -12  
Cardiff -17  
Edinburgh -9  
London -10  
Plymouth -9

Mean annual temperature in Europe and Australia

Country/City

Dim. outside temp.
[oC]

  Mean annual temperature
[oC]
Australia

 

   
Alice Springs -7   20
Brisbane 2   20
Canberra -10   13
Darwin 13   28
Melbourne -3   15
Perth 1   18
Sydney 2   17
Austria      
Innsbruck -27   9
Klagenfurt -27   8
Vienna -12   10
Belgium      
Brussels -17   10
Ostend -13   10
Virton -18   9
Bulgaria      
Sofia -25   12
Varna -16   13
Croatia      
Dubrovnik -7   16
Zagreb -9   6
Czech Republic      
Brno -25   9
Prague -28   8
Denmark      
Copenhagen -24   8,5
Hoyvik -10   7
Estonia      
Tallinn -30   5
Finland      
Helsinki -33   5
Inari -42   -1
France      
Bordeaux -15   12,5
Lyon -21   11,5
Marseilles -17   14
Paris -15   12
Germany      
Berlin -22   9
Frankfurt -24   10,5
Hamburg -29   9
Hannover -29   9
München -30   8
Greece      
Athens -6   18
Thessaloniki -10   16
Hungary      
Budapest -23   11
Debrecen -28   10
Iceland      
Reykjavik -15   5
Ireland      
Cork -9   10
Dublin -12   9,5
Italy      
Cagliari -2   17,5
Milan -11   14
Naples -4   15,5
Palermo 0   18
Rome -6   16
Venice -9   14
Latvia      
Riga -21   5,5
Lithuania      
Vilnius -29   6
Netherlands      
Amsterdam -25   10
Vissingen -20   10
Norway      
Bergen -14   8
Narvik -20   4
Oslo -26   6
Spitzbergen -33   -4
Poland      
Gdansk -24   8
Krakow -27   9
Poznan -28   8,5
Warszaw -29   8,5
Portugal      
Faro -1   18
Lissabon -1   16,5
Porto -4   14,5
Romania      
Arad -30   11
Bucharest -32   11
Constanta -23   11,5
Russia      
Archangel -41   0,5
Astrakhan -29   10
Irkutsk -50   -2
Moscow -32   4,5
Perm -44   2
St Petersburg -33   4,5
Slovak Republic      
Bratislava -23   10,5
Kosice -27   9
Slovenia      
Ljubljana -28   10
Spain      
Almeria 0   18
Barcelona -7   16,5
Madrid -10   14
Santander -4   14
Seville -3   19
Switzerland      
Bern -20   5
Geneva -18   7,5
Zürich -23   4
Turkey      
Ankara -25   12
Istanbul -9   14
Izmir -11   17,5
Kars -37   4
Samsun -7   14
Ukraine      
Simferopol -21   11
Kiev -25   8
United Kingdom      
Belfast -13   9
Birmingham -12   9,5
Cardiff -17   10,5
Edinburgh -9   9
London -10   10,5
Plymouth -9   11
 


Internal heat

Building W/m2 W/employee
Shop 15    
Cafeteria 15    
Office 10-20   100
Sports centre 10    
Bakery 30    
Steel mill 50-70    
Car workshop 15    
Mechanical workshop 20    
Heavy mechanical workshop 50    
Sheet metal/welding 25  

Infiltration

Building air change/h
     
Older building < 1000 m²   0,4
Older building > 1000 m²   0,2
New building < 1000 m²   0,3
New building > 1000 m²   0,1

Temperature gradient

Warm air is lighter than cold air and gathers in the highest spot inside a building. Vertical temperature differences between floor and ceiling occur. 

The temperature gradient (°C/m) is a measure of the temperature rise per metre of height and varies depending on the heating system and the season.

Heating Temperature gradient
Convectors 2-2,5 oC/m
Fan heaters 2-2,5 oC/m
Radiators 1,2-1,7 oC/m
Radiant heaters 0,2-0,4 oC/m
Floor heating ~0,1 oC/m
Temperature gradients for different kinds of heating at full output.
   
 

Output Calculation

Heat loss
Through the floor w
Through the ceiling w
Through the windows w
Through the doors w
Through external walls w
Total transmission losses w
Ventilation losses w
 
Total losses
 
w
Internal heat w
Results
Calculated output kw
Output / m2 W/m2
Output / m3 W/m2
Energyloss

Daytime

Floor kWh/year
Roof kWh/year
Windows kWh/year
Doors kWh/year
Outer walls kWh/year
Ventilation kWh/year
Total kWh/year

Nighttime/weekend

Floor kWh/year
Roof kWh/year
Windows kWh/year
Doors kWh/year
Outer walls kWh/year
Ventilation kWh/year
Total kWh/year

Total losses kWh/year
Internal heat kWh/year

Total requirements kWh/year
Yearly costs /year

The output calculation is based on the project data and information that has been submitted by the customer. If necessary information is not available, the calculation may be completed by inserting assumed values.

Frico AB is not responsible for miscalculation as a result of inaccurate data from the customer, lack of information or the use of assumed data.

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